Denver's Independent Police Monitor hired PARC to review officer-involved shootings from a four-year period and examine, through the prism of those shootings, whether the Denver Police Department's policies, training, and practices comported with the best learning nationally on evaluation and management of deadly force and the avoidance of unnecessary or ill-advised shootings.    

Scope of Work

PARC was initially charged with conducting an in-depth assessment of officer-involved shootings – and recommending changes in policy, tactics, training, and internal procedures that might address identified issues or shortcomings.


Rigorous Incident Review by Seasoned Experts.  PARC engaged a distinguished team of law enforcement experts to conduct detailed review of the whole of incident case files to determine what officers did well, what they could have done differently, and what issues the incident might raise for changes in policy and practice.

Best Practices. In drafting new policies, establishing new procedures, or designing new training, PARC evaluated the Denver Police Department's policies and training in light of best practice–as established by assessments of law enforcement agencies nationwide, model policies from national organizations, legal and academic research, and consultation by experienced professionals and law enforcement experts.

Transparent Internal Review.  Internal investigations of critical incidents must be rigorous, fair, objective, and timely. Reviews and assessments of those investigations must be critical, comprehensive, transparent, and willing to consider tough issues and questions–even if the officer ultimately is found to do everything consistent with Department policy and the law. PARC worked to determine how, in DPD's existing structures, it could strengthen and improve in these areas.


Clear & Pragmatic Recommendations. PARC made a series of clear and systematic recommendations for strenghtening DPD's investigation and review of officer-involved shootings – including changes to the use of force policy and internal investigation protocols.



Review officer-involved shootings and provide recommendations on training, tactics, policies, and internal investigations.


Officer-Involved Shootings
Use of Force
Less-Lethal Force Instruments
Internal Investigations
Officer Training & Tactics


The Denver Report on Use of Deadly Force (June 2008)


"Police guidelines praised, but audit critical about reviews of shooting incidents," Rocky Mountain News (July 2008)